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ACADIA MILLS, Lawrence, Mass. 

Manufacturers, Mercerizers, Bleachers and Dyers of 


for llie VV'eavin}4, Knittinti, Garment Makinj* anJ 
Shoe Trade 

I'nsurpassed in Quality 



Selling Agetits 


7.S Chaiincy St. 


L'.T .^Iadi^(>n .\vf. 


;iOO Che.'^fiiut St. 

2(),S S. l.aSalle St. 








Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

NCSU Libraries 

J\ Limited Edition printed by the 
Acadia Mills for those interested 
in the development of the cotton 
industry from primitive methods of 
spinning and weaving to the processes 
of today without change in basic 
principles of manufacture other than 
the use of power. 

THE manufacture of textiles, and in par- 
ticular of cotton textiles, is an industry 
of the utmost service in supph^ing the 
needs of our country. The uses of cotton are 
beyond number, and the growth of its manufac- 
ture is one of the great industrial achievements 
of the past decade. So prosi:)erous and efficient 
has the cotton industry become, meeting ever}- 
human want with the greatest economy, thanks 
to large-scale i:)roduction and distribution, that 
it is easy to forget its primitive beginnings. 

Nothing so aptly illustrates the origin of 
cotton manufacture as a study of the methods 
and imi)lements used by the natives of India. 
In a rare and little known volume entitled 
''Bihar Peasant Life," by George A. Grier- 
son. Fellow of the University of Calcutta, is 
found a descrii)tion in some detail of s])inning 
and weaving as ])ractised by the East Indians. 


The Acadia Mills, having had a number 
of inquiries as to the period of spinning de- 
picted in its trademark, takes pleasure in reprint- 
ing this section of that book, in the earnest 
hope that it may prove of interest and value in 
recalling the early processes and tools of a great 
industr3^ A comparison between these primi- 
tive methods and those of today is most im- 
pressive. The same principles in the prepara- 
tion, spinning and weaving of cotton are found 
in use todaj^ as then, but with power machin- 
ery replacing the labor of human hands. Indeed 
it is this substitution of power for hand labor, 
together with new processes of finishing, mer- 
cerizing and djing, that enables the cotton 
manufacturer of today to meet the increasing 
demands for cotton fabrics for all purposes. 



THE following diary shows the process of 
spinning thread and making cloth in the 
subdivision of ISIadhubani, in Northeast Tir- 
hut, in the year 1879: 

On September 20 the writer bought twent}^- 
four sers of cotton, being a day's plucking 
on a sunn}^ day from about a bigha and a 
half of cotton field. The cotton bdnga was 
of the kind called kokti, which ripens in 
the month of Bhddon (August-September). 
It was i)ulled out of the husks from the tree. 

September 20-26. During this time the cot- 
ton has been drying in the sun, and now 
(26th) two old women are employed to 
clean it, picking out the dirty and imma- 
ture cotton, called karkut. This is princi- 
pally' comi)osed of seeds which have come 
to nothing and been worm-eaten. This 
cleaning is done by hand. It lasted to 
September 30. 

October 1. Commenced to i?e])arate the 
seeds, hangaur, from the bdnga. This is 


done by a ir'^'^hine called charkhi, which 
consists of tw^o rollers, about an inch thick, 
of hard wood tightly wedged one above 
the other; both rollers are supported in 
uprights, the ends passing through. At 
one end the lower roller is turned by a 
handle, and has at the other end, where it 
projects from the upright, a screw cut in 
it. The same end of the upper screw has 
a reversed screw cut in it, and these two 
screws fitting into each other act like cog- 
wheels ; but when the lower roller is turned, 
the upper roller turns in the direction re- 
verse to that of the lower one, so that they 
act as a pair of feeders tightly wedged to- 
gether. The bdnga, or uncleaned cotton, is 
then applied to the feeding side of the two 
rollers, and on the handle being turned the 
cotton is pulled forcibly through by their 
revolution, while the seeds remain behind 
and fall down to the ground. 
The two upright standards are called khunta, 
and each of the rollers jdthi, or in Saran sanrdri. 
Underneath the rollers is a cross-bar, called kal, 
joining the two uprights and holding the ma- 
chine together. The khunti is a wedge going 
through each upright from front to back, under 
fl2 1 

Machine for Cleaning Raw ('otton (Charki) 


the cross-bar and holding it and the roller in 
their places. 

The pachri are the wedges running sideways 
through each upright and tightening the two roll- 
ers together. The crank which turns the lower 
roller is called makri, and it is held to it by the 
killi, or linch-pin. The handle at the other end 
of the crank, which is held in the hand, and by 
which the machine is turned, is called Idgani, 
or in Saran chalauni and in Gaya hathauri. 

The base of the machine in which the up- 
rights rest is called pirha, or to the west pirhiya, 
and out of this projects behind, along the 
ground, the majhiva, on which the foot of the 
operator is placed to keep the machine steady. 

The cotton, when cleaned from the seeds by 
this machine, is called n7, rili, or ti2r — the last 
by women of the upper Hindu castes, and the 
two first by Musalmans and low-caste Hindus. 
Rua is used in Shahabad. 

The above lasted three days. It was then 
again cleaned {tunab, tunnab, or (in Shahabad) 
tumab, to clean), the few remaining pieces of 
husk, etc., being picked out by hand. 

October 21. The cotton was today ])ut out 
in the sun preparatory to being carded 
{dhunab, to card). 

[15 1 

October 22. Today two cotton-carders 
(dhuniya) came to card the cotton. Each 
brought with him a machine, called a 
dhimki, or to the west dhanuhi. In Ciaya 
it is dhiinethi, in South Hunger and South- 
east Tirhut dhunaith, and in South Bha- 
galpur dhunhath. 

It is composed of the following parts : 

(a) The flexible piece of wood acting as a 
bow, called danti or danta to the east 
and ddnri to the west. 

{b) A broad wooden board, called phareha 
in Northeast Tirhut. In Southwest 
Tirhut it is pharavt a, in South Bhagal- 
pur pharuha, and elsewhere as pharha. 

(c) The bridge over which the string is 
passed, mdngi. In Shahabad and also 
optionally in East Tirhut it is mdiha, 

16 1 



1 '-h ,^ . ^O 


ill South Bhagalpur mathwa, and in 
South Munger magwdsi. 

(d) A leather string, called tdtit. In Patna 
and Gay a it is also called roda. 

(e) A leather strip acting as a sounding 
board, Ij'ing along the round edge of 
the phareha, on which the string re- 
bounds, called puchhet or puchheta 
generally, pachhauta in Tirhut, and 
kdnkar in Saran and Champaran. In 
Northeast Tirhut it is pushtail, and an 
optional name in Shahabad is puch- 

(/) A stout leather string along the outer 
side of the phareha, to one end of 
which the tdnt is attached, while the 
other end is fastened to the danti. It 
is used to tighten the tdnt, and is 
called ghirchi or ghurchi. When pegs 
are used for tightening this, the}' are 
called blri or hiriya. 

(g) The hathhar, hathgar, or hathkar, is a 
loop of string under which the left 
hand is passed to hold the machine 
steady. The above is the name cur- 
rent in Northeast Tirhut. South of 
the Ganges it is also called hathkar, 

f 19 1 

with variants hathkar or hathkara in 
Shahabad. In Northwest Tirhut it is 
hathra, in Southwest Tirhut and Saran 
hatha, and in Saran and Champaran 
muthwdra . 
(h) The mallet for twanging the bow, of 
wood, shaped like a dumb-bell. It is 
held in the right hand, and the tdnt is 
struck and twanged with it. It is 
called jista, and also (in Tirhut and 
South Bhagalpur) dista. In Patna it 
is called dasta, and in South ]\Iunger 

In using this instrument it is held by the left 
hand under the hathkar, which passes over the 
wrist, and the td7it twanged in the midst of the 
cotton by the jista, which is held in the right 
hand. This process loosens the texture of the 
cotton, and causes all the dust and dirt to fly 
out of it. The dhunki is not allowed to rest on 
the ground, but is supported in the air by the 
hathkar passing over the wrist, and it springs 
up and down as the tdnt is twanged. 

The whole pile of cleaned cotton was called 
(jothi. While this was going on, two old women 
were called in to make little hollow rolls of 


cotton to be made into thread. They are called 
to the east pint, and to the west piuni or pewni. 
A local name in East Tirhut is plr. These are 
about four inches long and a quarter of an inch 
thick. A lump of clean cotton, the size of a wal- 
nut, is put round a thin skewer, called pinrhsari, 
and is then rolled on a board, called pirhiya, 
with the palm of the hand. These are then tied 
up in bundles of about ten each, called mutthi. 

These jnni are now read}^ for being made 
into thread in the spinning-wheel. 

The spinning-wheel is charkha, but in South- 
west Shahabad it is rahta, and in the southeast 

Its parts are as follows: 

The Foundation. This is in the shape of a 
double letter T, thus: 

On one of the cross-pieces the driving wheel 
stands, and on the other the spinning apparatus. 


This foundation is called plrha or pirhiya to the 
east, and pirhai to the west. The connecting 
bar between the two cross-pieces is manjhwa or 
manjha, in Patna and Gaya it is latkhora, and 
in South Bhagalpur manjhdl. 

The Driving Wheel. The supports of the 
driving wheel are called khunta. The wheel it- 
self is composed of two parts: 

(a) The central boss or nave, and 
(5) The four spokes on each side of the 

The nave is called munri or muri south of the 
Ganges, and ynunri or munriya north of it; in 
East Tirhut it is also tama, and in South Bha- 
galpur and South Hunger paila. It is about 
five inches long and four inches thick. 

There are four spokes lying across each end 
of the nave from one circumference to the 
other; there are, therefore, eight radii on each 
side, and they are so arranged that the radii on 
each side are not opposite each other, but alter- 
nate. Each of these cross spokes is called putti 
or pidi, or in Southwest Shahabad kamri; 
sometimes they are also called khilnta or khunti. 

These spokes are held in their places by a 
string, called awdl to the west, amwdl in Patna 
and Gaya, and amdl or amdlh to the east. In 


South Munger it is amhdl. This string goes 
round the extremities of each radius of each 
side alternately, thus : ^\ It forms, there- 
fore, a kind of edge or / 1 rim of a broad 
wheel, something like ^ \^ a paddle wheel, 
and over it i:)asses the driving band which turns 
the spinning ai:)paratus. This paddle wheel is 
about a foot in diameter and five inches thick. 

The central axle of the driving wheel is called 
Icdh, generalh^ north of the Ganges and in South 
Bhagalpur. In Tirhut it is called jdth, and in 
Northeast Tirhut also laith or jdlth . South of the 
Ganges it is generally belna. It is caused to re- 
volve b}' a crank end called makri, or in Shahabad 
and West Tirhut ndk. It is ddrhi or darhiya else- 
where south of the Ganges, except South Bhagal- 
pur, where it is again makri. To this is attached 
a handle, called to the west and in Ga3^a chalauna, 
and to the east lama or Idrani. In Southwest 
Shahabad it is called bhaunti or hhdmicat, and 
in Saran optionalh^ chalauni. 

The Driving Band is called mdl or mdlh. 
It is rubbed with rosin {dhuman) and oil {tel), 
and is then blackened with charcoal (koela). 
The driving band goes twice round the driving 
wheel and the spinning axle, once jmssing 
through the tnalkdthi {vide post), and once not. 


The Spinning Apparatus. We now come to 
the spinning apparatus. There are three per- 
pendicular uprights. The two outside ones are 
called khunti, and the middle one is called mal- 
kdthi. In Patna these three uprights are called 
together pachkathiya, and in Southwest Shaha- 
bad khuntiputti. The two outside ones support 
the bearings of the sjiinning axle, and the 
centre one has in its length, facing the driving 
wheel and going right through its thickness, a 
long slot cut. One of the strings of the driving 
band passes through this slot, and the other 
passes outside it, so that the double turn round 
the spinning axle can never get jammed up 
together, and so entangled. 

On the two outside uprights, on the side 
furthest from the driving wheel, project two 
stiff pieces of leather, called chamrakh. These 
form the bearings of the spinning axle, which 
passes through them. 

The Spinning Axle. This is called takua, 
and also to the west tekua. It is an iron skewer 
about eight inches long and an eighth of an inch 
thick at the thickest part. It projects a dis- 
tance of three inches beyond its bearing on the 
same side as the handle of the driving wheel. 
This bearing has on each side two little pieces 
126 1 

of wood fitting on to the spinning axle, which 
act as washers, and are called chhuchchhi. Out- 
side the outer washer on the spinning axle is a 
flat disc called phirki, and two and a half inches 
of the axle project beyond it. 

The driving band, after passing twice round 
the driving wheel, passes through the malkdthi, 
then twice round the spinning axle, and then 
back to the driving wheel outside the malkdthi; 
and it is evident that even the slow turning of 
the driving wheel will make the spinning axle 
revolve at a very high speed indeed. 

In spinning, the projecting point of the spin- 
ning axle has a short length of thread attached 
to it, and then, while the handle of the driving 
wheel is turned with the right hand, a roll of 
cotton (pinl) is held in the left hand between 
the finger and thumb, and the cotton, being 
quickly caught up by the length of thread, is 
drawn off in the shape of thread on to the 
quickly revolving spinning axle. 

When the projecting point of the spinning 
axle is filled with thread, the whole is called a 
kukri, or in Saran kukurhi, and is wound off on 
a winder, called paiia or pareta. It is also called 
in Southwest Tirhut nativa, and in East Tirhut 
lahva or natica. In South Bhagal])ur it is called 

natal. This is like an ordinary silk winder. 
The handle (chalauna) of the driving wheel is 
taken out of its socket in the crank iinakri), 
and in its place is placed one end of the axle of 
the winder. The other end is held in the right 
hand, and is revolved between the finger and 
thumb. The winder is conical in sha])e, and 
does not need further description. It will hold 
half a quarter of a ser of thread at a time. 
When it is filled, the thread is taken off and tied 
in hanks. These are generally pola, poli, or 
poliya. Local names are natti (Northeast Tir- 
hut), latti (Patna and Gaya), and karchi in 
Southwest Shahabad. 

The diary breaks off here temporaril}', as the 
spinning of this particular cotton was not done 
in the writer's presence. He wished the thread 
to be si)un as fine as possible, and as this could 
only be done by Brahmani women, who would 
not come to a strange house, this part of the 
work was done by them at home. 




rriHE following is a continuation of the same 
-L diar}'. 

January 18, 1880. The skeins of fine thread 
were brought to me today, and were put 
in water to soak for eight days. This 
strengthens it. 
January 27. After they had soaked this 
period I sent for a weaver. A Muhamma- 
dan weaver is jolha or momin, a Hindu 
weaver is tantwa or fdnti, or, in Shahabad 
tdnto. Sometimes the Hindi word joldha 
is used instead oi jolha. 
The Musalman weaver or jolha is the pro- 
verbial fool of Hindu stories and proverbs. He 
swims in the moonlight across fields of flowering 
linseed, thinking the blue color to be caused bj^ 
water. He hears his family priest reading the 
Quran, and bursts into tears to the gratification 
of the reader. When pressed to tell what part 
affected him most, he says it was not that, but 
the wagging beard of the old gentleman so much 
reminded him of a pet goat which had died. 
When forming one of a company of twelve he 


tries to count them, and finding himself miss- 
ing wants to perform his own funeral obsequies. 
He finds the rear peg of a plough, and wants to 
set up farming on the strength of it. He gets 
into a boat at night, and forgets to pull up the 
anchor. After rowing till dawn he finds himself 
where he started, and concludes that the only 
explanation is that his native village could not 
bear to lose him, and had followed him. If 
there are eight weavers and nine hukkas, they 
fight for the odd one. Once on a time a crow 
carried off to the roof of the house some bread 
which a weaver had given his child. Before 
giving the child any more he took the precau- 
tion of removing the ladder. Like the English 
fool, he always gets unmerited blows. For in- 
stance, he once went to see a ram fight and got 
butted himself, as the saying runs : 

Karigah chhdr tamdsa jay, 
Ndhak chot joldha khdy. 

"Jie left his loom to see the fun, and for no rea- 
son got a bruising." Another story (told by 
Fallon) is, that being told by a soothsayer that 
it was written in his fate that his nose would 
be cut off with an axe, the weaver was incredu- 
lous, and taking up an axe, kept flourishing it, 
saying, yon karba ta gov kdtbon, yon karha ta 

hath katbon, aur yon karba tah nd — , if I do so 
I cut my leg, and if I do so I cut m}^ hand; but 
unless I do so my no — , and his nose was off. A 
proverb Jo//? rt janathi jau kdtai — does a weaver 
know how to cut barle}'' — refers to a story (in 
Fallon) that a weaver, unable to pay his debt, was 
set to cut barley by his creditor, who thought to 
repay himself in this wa3^ But instead of reaping, 
the stupid fellow kept trying to untwist the tangled 
barley stems. Other proverbs at his expense are 
kaua chalal bds ken, joiha chalal ghds ken, — the 
weaver went out to cut grass (at sunset), when 
even the crows were going home; jolha bhutiaildh 
tisikhet, — the weaver lost his way in the linseed 
field, an illusion to the swimming exploit already 
recorded. Plis wife bears an equally bad char- 
acter, as in the proverb bahsali jolhini bdpak 
ddnrhi noche, — a wilful weaver's wife will pull 
her own father's beard. 

The weaver proceeded to set up in the ground 
seventeen pairs of sticks in two lines, at a dis- 
tance between each pair of about one and a 
quarter cubits, and between the lines of about 
two cubits. At each end of each line a stout 
bamboo post is fixed, and close to each of those 
at one end another smaller stafT. Round these 
sticks the thread is twisted as follows: 

[33 1 

A, A, A, A, are the tops of the bamboo posts, 
and the dots are the tops of the smaller sticks. 

This operation of setting the warp is called 
tdnikarab, or in Shahabad tana karab. The 
bamboo posts are called khilnti, and each stick, 
sar. These last are called in Saran, Champaran, 
and Northwest Tirhut sarka. 

The sticks immediatelj' in front of the bam- 
boo posts are called to the west chhitua, in Sha- 
habad chhipki, and to the east chhitki, also in 
Northeast Tirhut dorik sar. The whole appa- 
ratus is called tdni, or in vShahabad tana, and 
the thread to be stretched is put on a kind of 
pyramidal reel called charkhi. It spins on a 
spindle, called dagni, or in Sha- 
habad ddngi, and in the inside 
of the apex of the cone is a 
cup called thori, or in Shahabad 
tholri, in South Munger thorli, 
and in South Bhagalpur to'i, 
which rests on, and revolves 
on the point of, the spindle, 


The spool is composed of fourteen slips of 
bamboo, forming the framework of the cone, 
fastened at equal distances round the circum- 
ference (chakkar) of the base of the cone, and 
converging to a point at the top. 

The spindle of the spool is held in the left 
hand, and the weaver walks up and down be- 
tween the two lines of thread, directing the 
thread by a hook called khunri or kJionri, 
or in Southwest Shahabad khunda, in South 
Munger khundi, and in Northeast Tirhut and 
Shahabad khunra, and shaped as follows: 
The hook at the top is made of iron. U 

February 5, 1880. The warp having now 
been all set upon the sticks {sar), the.y 
were, with the khunti, pulled up, rolled up, 
and put by till today. Today they were 
unrolled and laid out in a long line on the 
grass. The khunti were then carefully 
drawn out, and a bamboo staff, called 
sirdi^ (or sirdri), put in the place of each. 
It will be remembered that the sar were in 
pairs, and that at each pair the thread 
crossed thus ^X^^ Another kind of 
sar is now taken, made like a long shallow 
bow, except that the string is made of a 
thin strip of bamboo. This bow is called 


sutri, or in Tirhut banhka. The arch of 
the bow is also made of bamboo. The 
bamboo string is called dori. The arch of 
the bow is now passed through the threads 
where one of the old sar was, and the bam- 
boo string through where the other sar of 
the pair was, so that the cross of the 
threads is still i)reserved. The bow and 
string are then fastened to each other at 
each end. The arches of the various bows 
all face one way. The warp is then laid 
out on the ground, and the threads neatly 
spread out upon the bows in parallel lines, 
to the width of the future piece of cloth. 

February 9. The thread thus arranged was 
rolled up, dipped into, and well wet with 
cold rice water [indnr), to which some 
marua seeds had been added to stiffen it. 
It was then unrolled and stretched out 
horizontall}^ at a height of three feet from 
the ground and brushed with a large 
brush, called kfmch, dii^ped in mustard oil 
and water, which smooths the threads 
and takes away any knots or inequalities 
in the thread. This brush is also called 
majna in West Tirhut, mdnja in South 
Bhagalpur, and mdnjan in Southwest Sha- 

I 36 1 

habad. The cross sticks on which the 
thread rests are called nidnjha, and the 
cross bamboos at each end are thenghni or 
Idthi dor to the west, gora to the east, 
khasraiya in Northwest Tirhut, dhattha 
also in Northeast Tirhut, dhdntha in South 
Bhagalpur, and Idthi also in Southeast 
Tirhut. This brushing is hard work, and 
takes eight men to do it properly. The 
brushing is along the threads, and not 
across them. The bristles of the brush are 
made of khaskhas, called also in Saran 
katra ke jar, such as is used for tatties, 
and are about two and a half inches long. 
The brush itself is about a foot long and 
two inches wide. The brushing went on 
for three days, and is called pdi karab, and 
also in east Tirhut tdsan karab. The phrase 
di pdi means the brushing and other prep- 
arations, and there is a proverb, jolha ke 
di pdi, chamra ke bihdn — when a weaver 
says the cloth will be soon ready, as he 
is now brushing it, don't believe him, 
an}^ more than you believe a shoemaker 
who says, "The boots will be ready 


When this was concluded, the threads were 
put into the loom and woven at the rate of a 
yard a day. The Loom is little different from 
that used in England. It is called karigah to 
the west and kargah to the east. It consists of 
the following parts: 

(1) The Shuttle. This is dharki in Gaya 
and to the west, and kaparhinni or ka- 
parblni to the east. In Northeast Tir- 
hut it is also called kaparni. 

(2) The Needle inside the shuttle, on 
which the thread is wound, is tiri, and 
the tube which revolves on this chhuch- 
chhi, or in Shahabad chhunchhi. When 
thread is wound on this tube the whole 
is called narl, also in East Tirhut lari. 
This is held in its place in the hollow of 
the shuttle by a pin made of a feather. 
This is called pakhnari to the west and 
in Southeast Tirhut, btr in South Bha- 
galpur, and pakhblr or pakhedri to the 
east. A weaver estimates his work b}^ 
the number of 7iari which he uses up, as 
in the proverb in which he is supposed 
to address a man who has seized him to 
carry a load, tangbah ta tangah, nahin 
ta nan narlk harkati hoet — if you must 


- :S S R 

TO ■* IC tc 

3 ^ -- S 




load me, load me ciuickly, otherwise 
the time of nine shuttles will be wasted. 

(3) The Wooden Frame suspended from 
the roof, which after the shuttle passes 
is pulled forward by the weaver and 
drives the thread home. This is hatha 
or hattha in West Shahabad, Patna, and 
West Tirhut, kamhanr in the west gen- 
erally, kamhar in the northwest, and 
kamhanda in Gay a. In Northeast Tir- 
hut it is tana, and in Southeast Tirhut 
tani. In South Bhagalpur it is tankar. 

(4) The Comb of reeds or bamboo in this 
bar, which keeps the threads of the 
warp apart, is called rdchh. 

(5) The Heddles, which alternately raise 
or depress the threads of the warp, are 
bae or bai. 

(6) The set of three Reeds which is placed 
in front of the heddles to keep the two 
sets of the threads of the warp ajmrt is 
atrdwan north of the Ganges generally, 
and in Shahabad, and tardwan else- 
where south of the Ganges. Another 
set of three reeds also used is called 
bhanjni in Champaran, North Tirhut, 
Gaya, and South Munger, and the two 


sets together are called in Northeast 
Tirhut atrdwan hhdnj. In Patna and 
the southeast the reeds are also called 

(7) The elastic Bow, which keeps the woven 
cloth stretched in front of the weaver, 
is pannik south of the Ganges; north of 
the Ganges it is pannikh, and also panni 
in East Tirhut. 

(8) The wooden Roller, behind which the 
weaver sits, and on which the cloth is 
wound up as fast as it is made, is in the 
northwest, in West Shahabad, and in 
South Munger lapetan; elsewhere it is 

(9) This is supported b}^ Posts, called 
khunta; also the right and left ones have 
different names, viz., the right-hand 
one, which passes through the roller 
and prevents it turning round, is jib- 
hela everywhere, in Northeast Tirhut 
also jihla, and in Southeast Tirhut also 
jihela. In South Bhagalpur it is gdli 
khunta. The left-hand one, against 
which the roller rests, is banghela north 
of the Ganges everywhere. Also, in 
East Tirhut, as also to the west and 

42 1 

Gaya, it is bamwdri or bamwariya, in 
Shahabad it is also pachhela, and in 
Southwest Tirhiit kandhela. In South- 
east Tirhut it is also called bamaila. 
In South Bhagulpar it is simply 

(10) The woof is supported at the end op- 
posite the weaver by a piece of wood 
called kharkaut to the west and khar- 
kauti to the east or kharkuti in South 
Bhagalpur, which is held up by pillars 
called kanaili to the north and west, 
khunta in East Tirhut, thmn in Patna, 
thumbhi in Gaya, and thumbha in the 
east, and also kharko khunta in South 

(11) The woof is held tight by a string, 
which is fastened to its end and passes 
round a peg at the extreme end of the 
loom and back again up to the weaver, 
where it is fastened within his reach to 
another peg. He is thus able to slacken 
the woof as necessary. The first peg is 
called agela ke khunta, or in Tirhut sar- 
kauni ke khunti; the second peg is 
called dorbandha ke khunta, or in South 
Bhagalpur kankilU. 


(12) The Treadle, which the weaver moves 
with his foot, is paunsdr or pausdr gen- 
erally, and in East Tirhut pasdr. The 
knob on this, held between the w^eaver's 
toes, is pautdn. 

(13) The Upper Levers, to which the hed- 
dles are attached, are nachni generally. 
In East Tirhut they are lochni, and in 
South Munger lachni. 

(14) These levers are fastened to an Upper 
Beam, which has various names, viz., 
abher to the west, bhitbhera in Saran 
and C'hamparan, dhachdna in Southwest 
Tirhut, dhachdn or akdsi in Northeast 
Tirhut, uparkar in Southeast Tirhut, 
karbdr in Gaya, and kar in Patna and 
South Munger. 

The loose end of the woof {pdi) is called 
sirdra, and it is wound up on a tangni, which is 
hung up out of the way. 





ACADIA MILLS, Lawrence, Mass. 

Manufiicliirers, Mercerizcrs, Bleachers and Dyers of 


for the Weavint<, Knittin(«, Garment Makin.^ aiul 
Shoe Trade 

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li.T Madison .\ve. 


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